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Astronomicheskaya nedelya s 28 sentyabrya po 4 oktyabrya 2020 goda Astronomicheskaya nedelya s 28 sentyabrya po 4 oktyabrya 2020 goda
25.09.2020 15:13 | Aleksandr Kozlovskii

Na dannoi nedele 29 sentyabrya Saturn dostignet stoyaniya s perehodom k pryamomu dvizheniyu, a 30 sentyabrya Luna (F= 0,97+) proidet yuzhnee Neptuna 1 oktyabrya Merkurii dostignet maksimal'noi vostochnoi (vechernei) elongacii 26 gradusov, a 2 oktyabrya Venera proidet v 0,1 gr. yuzhnee Regula. 3 oktyabrya Luna (F= 0,98-) proidet yuzhnee Marsa (pokrytie, vidimoe v Yuzhnoi Amerike i Afrike), a zatem pri faze 0,97- dostignet apogeya svoei orbity na rasstoyanii 406321 km ot centra Zemli. 4 oktyabrya proizoidet pokrytie Lunoi (F= 0,96-) zvezdy ksi1 Kita (4,4m) pri vidimosti na Evropeiskoi chasti Rossii i v Zapadnoi Sibiri, a zatem yarkii lunnyi disk pri faze 0,94- proidet yuzhnee Urana. V etot zhe den' dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda RR Skorpiona (5m) dostignet maksimuma bleska.

Solnce. Maksimal'naya vysota dnevnogo svetila nad gorizontom na shirote Moskvy umen'shaetsya do 30 gradusov, a dolgota dnya na toi zhe shirote - do 11 chasov 20 minut. Vidimyi diametr Solnca uvelichivaetsya do 31,98 minut dugi, a dvizhetsya ono po sozvezdiyu Devy. Dannye o Solnce na tekushee vremya.

Luna. Estestvennyi sputnik Zemli vstupaet v fazu polnoluniya 1 oktyabrya. Luna v svoem dvizhenii po nebesnoi sfere posetit sozvezdiya Kozeroga, Vodoleya, Ryb i Ovna, izmenyaya fazu ot 0,85+ do 0,9- i uvelichivaya sklonenie, a takzhe vysotu verhnei kul'minacii. Nachalo nedeli nochnoe svetilo provedet v sozvezdii Kozeroga. 28 sentyabrya Luna vstupit v sozvezdie Vodoleya, a 30 sentyabrya pri faze 0,97+ vtoroi raz za mesyac proidet yuzhnee Neptuna, a zakonchit svoi put' po sentyabr'skomu nebu uzhe v sozvezdii Ryb okolo fazy polnoluniya, nablyudayas' vsyu noch'. Pereidya v pervyi den' oktyabrya v sozvezdie Kita, Luna budet nablyudat'sya vsyu noch', a 2 oktyabrya vnov' posetit sozvezdie Ryb. Zdes' 3 oktyabrya Luna pri faze 0,98- pokroet Mars pri vidimosti v Yuzhnoi Amerike i Afrike, nahodyas' okolo apogeya svoei orbity. Provedya ostatok dnya 3 oktyabrya v sozvezdii Kita, lunnyi disk pereidet v sozvezdie Ovna 4 oktyabrya, proidya zdes' yuzhnee Urana pri faze 0,94-. Fazy Luny na dannoe vremya i na budushee.

Iz planet Solnechnoi sistemy: Merkurii viden na fone vechernei zari v yuzhnyh shirotah strany, Venera imeet utrennyuyu vidimost', a Mars, Uran i Neptun mozhno nablyudat' v nochnoe vremya. Yupiter i Saturn nablyudayutsya v vechernee vremya. Podrobnye efemeridy i karty dvizheniya bol'shih planet dayutsya v pechatnoi versii AK_2020 na http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1364099 . Efemeridy Solnca, Luny i planet na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya takzhe na http://astropixels.com/ .

Iz komet hvostataya strannica NEOWISE (C/2020 F3) dvizhetsya po sozvezdiyu Vesov s bleskom okolo 11m. 88P/Howell peremeshaetsya po sozvezdiyu Skorpiona s bleskom okolo 9m. Karty putei komet i asteroidov na mesyac imeyutsya v KN na sentyabr', KN na oktyabr', a na drugie periody - v Astronomicheskom kalendare na 2020 god. Podrobnye svedeniya o kometah nedeli i mesyaca (s kartami i prognozami bleska) privodyatsya na http://aerith.net/comet/weekly/current.html , a rezul'taty nablyudenii - na http://195.209.248.207/ .

Sredi asteroidov naibolee yarkimi na dannoi nedele budut: Vesta (8,3m) v sozvezdii L'va i Cerera (8,1m) v sozvezdii Yuzhnoi Ryby.

Iz otnositel'no yarkih (do 9,0m fotograficheskogo bleska) dolgoperiodicheskih peremennyh zvezd (po dannym AAVSO), nablyudaemyh s territorii nashei strany, maksimuma bleska dostignut: Z Orla 9,0m - 28 sentyabrya, S Zmei 8,7m - 29 sentyabrya, V Devy 8,9m - 4 oktyabrya.

Nekotorye blizkie pary svetil: Luna - Saturn, Luna - Neptun, Luna - Mars (pokrytie), Luna - Uran, Merkurii - Spika, Venera - Regul, Mars - myu Ryb, Yupiter - Saturn, Uran - al'fa Ovna, Neptun - fi Vodoleya.

Obzor tumannyh nebesnyh ob'ektov mesyaca - v zhurnale Nebosvod. Videokalendar' predstoyashih yavlenii http://www.youtube.com/user/AstroSmit i http://www.youtube.com/c/AstroMich .

Nedel'nyi obzor ot zhurnala "Skai end Teleskop", no nuzhno uchityvat', chto kartinki dayutsya dlya 40 severnoi shiroty, a polozhenie Luny i planet na 7 chasov pozdnee otnositel'no moskovskogo vremeni!

Yasnogo neba i uspeshnyh nablyudenii!

Svedeniya ob astronomicheskih yavleniyah proshlogo i tekushego stoletii mozhno naiti v Astronomicheskom kalendare-spravochnike na Astronet http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1388759 .

Planety

Merkurii. Planeta peremeshaetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu Devy (bliz Spiki), nablyudayas' v vechernih sumerkah v yuzhnyh shirotah strany. Uglovye razmery Merkuriya sostavlyayut okolo 7 sekund dugi pri bleske okolo 0m. Faza umen'shaetsya do 0,55, a maksimal'naya elongaciya dostigaet 26 gradusov 1 oktyabrya. V teleskop viden poludisk planety. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Merkuriem i Zemlei umen'shaetsya ot 1,05 do 0,93 a.e.. Polozheniya planety vo vremya vseh elongacii 2020 goda imeyutsya v Astronomicheskom kalendare na 2020 god . Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Messendzher. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/mercury2020.html

Venera. Planeta dvizhetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu L'va bliz Regula. Venera vidna v utrennie chasy v vide samoi yarkoi zvezdy neba. Elongaciya planety umen'shaetsya do 40 gradusov k zapadu ot Solnca. Vidimyi diametr Venery umen'shaetsya ot 15,9 do 15,2 uglovyh sekund, a blesk imeet znachenie -4,0m pri faze okolo 0,7. V teleskop planeta vidna v vide ovala bez kakih-libo detalei na poverhnosti. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Zemlei i Veneroi uvelichivaetsya ot 1,05 do 1,10 a.e.. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Venera-Ekspress. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/venus2020.html

Mars. Zagadochnaya planeta peremeshaetsya popyatno po sozvezdiyu Ryb. Mars nablyudaetsya vsyu noch', i eto luchshii period dlya nablyudenii planety v 2020 godu. Blesk planety uvelichivaetsya ot -2,4m do -2,5m, a vidimyi diametr priderzhivaetsya znacheniya 22,5 sekund dugi. V teleskop viden disk (naibol'shii v etom godu), na kotorom v lyubitel'skie teleskopy mozhno rassmotret' detali poverhnosti i polyarnuyu shapku. Fotograficheskie metody nablyudeniya s posleduyushei obrabotkoi na komp'yutere prinesut bolee kachestvennyi rezul'tat. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Marsom i Zemlei umen'shaetsya ot 0,42 do 0,415 a.e.. 6 oktyabrya 2020 goda proizoidet sblizhenie Marsa s Zemlei do 0,415 a.e., a 13 oktyabrya nastupit protivostoyanie (blizkoe k velikomu) planety (Astronomicheskii kalendar' na 2020 god). Vidimyi diametr Marsa v period protivostoyaniya prevysit 22 uglovye sekundy pri horoshei vidimosti s territorii nashei strany. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - MSL Curiosity. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/mars2020.html

Yupiter. Gazovyi gigant dvizhetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu Strel'ca. Yupiter nablyudaetsya v vechernie chasy bliz Saturna. Vyshe 68 paralleli Yupiter ne voshodit voobshe. Uglovoi diametr planety sostavlyaet okolo 40 sekundy dugi pri bleske -2,3m i rasstoyanii ot Zemli 4,82 - 0,92 a.e.. V nebol'shoi teleskop mozhno razglyadet' polosy na diske planety (parallel'no ekvatoru) i drugie detali. Pokrytiya sputnikov planetoi, zatmeniya i prohozhdeniya ih pered planetoi naibolee horosho vidny v period protivostoyaniya. Konfiguracii sputnikov Yupitera imeyutsya v KN na sentyabr' i KN na oktyabr'. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Galileo. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/jupiter2020.html

Saturn. Okol'covannaya planeta imeet pryamoe dvizhenie, peremeshayas' po sozvezdiyu Strel'ca. Saturn imeet vechernyuyu vidimost', a nablyudat' ego mozhno bliz Yupitera. Vyshe 69 paralleli Saturn voobshe ne viden. Blesk planety imeet znachenie +0,4m, a uglovoi diametr - okolo 17 sekund dugi. V nebol'shoi teleskop mozhno nablyudat' kol'co planety i samyi yarkii sputnik Titan (8m). Drugie otnositel'no yarkie sputniki Saturna mozhno nablyudat' v teleskopy s diametrom ob'ektiva ot 100 mm. Rasstoyanie ot Zemli do Saturna uvelichivaetsya ot 9,61 do 9,72 a.e.. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Kassini. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/saturn2020.html

Uran. Planeta (m= +6, d= 3,4 ugl. sek.) dvizhetsya popyatno po sozvezdiyu Ovna (yuzhnee zvezdy al'fa Ovna (+2m)). Uran imeet nochnuyu vidimost'. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Zemlei i Uranom umen'shaetsya za nedelyu ot 18,95 do 18,89 a.e.. Disk planety razlichim v instrument s uvelicheniem ot 80 krat (pri ideal'nyh usloviyah) i vyshe. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Voyadzher-2. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/uranus2020.html

Neptun. Planeta (m= +8, d= 2,3 ugl. sek.) peremeshaetsya popyatno po sozvezdiyu Vodoleya bliz zvezdy fi Aqr (4,2m). Neptun nahoditsya na nochnom nebe. Disk planety razlichim v instrument s uvelicheniem ot 100 krat (pri ideal'nyh usloviyah) i vyshe. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Zemlei i Neptunom uvelichivaetsya za nedelyu ot 28,96 do 29,0 a.e.. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Voyadzher-2. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/neptune2020.html

Pluton. Karlikovaya planeta ili plutoid (+14,5m) nahoditsya v sozvezdii Strel'ca na rasstoyanii okolo 34 a.e. ot Zemli. Dlya vizual'nyh nablyudenii Plutona neobhodim teleskop s diametrom ob'ektiva ot 250 mm (v periody nailuchshei vidimosti) i prozrachnoe nebo, a ideal'noe mesto dlya ego nablyudenii - v ekvatorial'noi oblasti Zemli. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Novye Gorizonty

Obzornye stat'i o planetah i malyh telah Solnechnoi sistemy - v zhurnale Nebosvod 12 za 2008 god i 1 - 8 za 2009 god.

Dopolnitel'no http://galspace.spb.ru (vse o planetah) i http://astro.websib.ru (raznoobraznaya spravochnaya astroinformaciya)

Efemeridy nekotoryh asteroidov nedeli na 0 chasov vsemirnogo vremeni (dannye GUIDE 8.0)

   
Data          a(2000.0)      d(2000.0)   r      delta   m  elon.   V      PA  son.   
Cerera (1)   
21 Sep 2020  22h34m02.01s  -25 14.981'  2.981   2.076  8.0 148.9  24.05 261.5 PsA   
26 Sep 2020  22h30m44.27s  -25 19.598'  2.981   2.111  8.1 144.0  20.83 267.2 PsA   
Vesta (4)   
21 Sep 2020   9h20m29.55s  +17 22.007'  2.493   3.161  8.4  41.1  62.80 104.0 Cnc   
26 Sep 2020   9h28m56.63s  +16 51.264'  2.490   3.113  8.3  43.9  62.18 104.4 Leo   
Flora (8)   
21 Sep 2020   3h02m11.51s  + 6 06.053'  1.866   1.036  8.9 132.4  11.98 137.5 Cet   
26 Sep 2020   3h02m48.60s  + 5 47.014'  1.864   1.001  8.7 137.0  10.23 174.2 Cet   
Fortuna (19)   
21 Sep 2020  23h07m17.26s  - 3 37.825'  2.132   1.139  9.5 168.1  33.56 242.9 Aqr   
26 Sep 2020  23h03m28.74s  - 4 07.453'  2.126   1.149  9.7 162.2  30.45 242.1 Aqr   
Leto (68)   
21 Sep 2020   0h47m43.51s  - 4 41.847'  2.280   1.293  9.7 165.9  31.87 259.4 Cet   
26 Sep 2020   0h43m23.87s  - 4 52.862'  2.283   1.289  9.6 169.9  33.56 261.3 Cet   
    
a  pryamoe voshozhdenie dlya epohi 2000.0,  d - sklonenie dlya epohi 2000.0,     
r -  rasstoyanie ot Solnca (a.e.),  delta -  rasstoyanie ot Zemli (a.e.),     
m -  zvezdnaya velichina, elon. - elongaciya, V -  uglovaya skorost' (sekund v chas),    
RA -  pozicionnyi ugol napravleniya dvizheniya nebesnogo tela, son. -  sozvezdie     

Izbrannye astronomicheskie yavleniya nedeli

Vremya dlya yavlenii privoditsya vsemirnoe. Na saite Sergeya Gur'yanova mozhno pol'zovat'sya veb-versiei AK na 2020 god s obshim obzorom zvezdnogo neba i yavlenii sentyabrya i oktyabrya mesyaca. Svedeniya ot drugih yavleniyah imeyutsya v KN na sentyabr', KN na oktyabr', Astronomicheskom kalendare na 2020 god, Astronomicheskom kalendare - spravochnike i kalendare Salsky .

28 sentyabrya, noch' - Dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda Z Orla bliz maksimuma bleska (7,5m).

29 sentyabrya, 02 chasa 49 minut - Saturn v stoyanii s perehodom k pryamomu dvizheniyu.

30 sentyabrya, noch' - Luna (F= 0,97+) prohodit yuzhnee Neptuna.

01 oktyabrya, 21 chas 05 minut - Polnolunie.

02 oktyabrya, utro - Venera prohodit v 0,1 gr. yuzhnee Regula.

03 oktyabrya, 17 chasov 24 minuty - Luna (F= 0,97-) v apogee svoei orbity na rasstoyanii 406321 km ot centra Zemli.

04 oktyabrya, noch' - Dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda RR Skorpiona bliz maksimuma bleska (5m).
Dopolnitel'no o yavleniyah i nablyudeniyah - na Astroforume, Novosti nauki, Meteoveb, Mir astronomii i DvaStrel'ca.

Istochniki: Kalendar' Nablyudatelya N 09 i 10 AstroKA; StarryNightBackyard 3.1 (opisatel'naya chast' i vid neba), GUIDE 8.0 (polozhenie asteroidov i komet), http://aerith.net/comet/weekly/current.html (operativnye svedeniya o kometah), http://www.imo.net (meteory), AAVSO (peremennye zvezdy), Astronomicheskii kalendar'-spravochnik ot 1901 do 2100 goda, http://www.calsky.com/ (on-lain kalendar'), http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/ (katalog asteroidov i komet, a takzhe operativnaya informaciya o novyh nebesnyh telah), http://asteroidoccultation.com/IndexAll.htm (pokrytiya zvezd asteroidami).


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