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Astronomicheskaya nedelya s 23 po 29 sentyabrya 2019 goda Astronomicheskaya nedelya s 23 po 29 sentyabrya 2019 goda
20.09.2019 7:01 | Aleksandr Kozlovskii

Na dannoi nedele 23 sentyabrya nastupit osennee ravnodenstvie. V etot den' v 10 chasov 50 minut po moskovskomu vremeni Solnce, dvigayas' po ekliptike (v sozvezdii Devy), dostignet tochki nebesnoi sfery s koordinatami 12 chasov po pryamomu voshozhdeniyu i 0 gradusov po skloneniyu, peresechet nebesnyi ekvator i pereidet iz severnogo polushariya neba v yuzhnoe. V den' osennego ravnodenstviya Solnce na vsei Zemle voshodit tochno na vostoke, a zahodit tochno na zapade (den' stanovitsya raven nochi). Nastupaet astronomicheskaya osen' v severnom polusharii Zemli i vesna - v yuzhnom. Na polyusah Zemli Solnce matematicheski dvizhetsya tochno po gorizontu v techenie sutok, hotya blagodarya refrakcii, pripodnimayushei vse svetila nad gorizontom, fakticheski ono dvizhetsya vyshe gorizonta na velichinu refrakcii - okolo polgradusa. Po etoi zhe prichine vo vremya osennego (kak i vesennego) ravnodenstviya den' vse-taki nemnogo dlinnee nochi. V Rossii eto naibolee udobnyi period dlya provedeniya utrennih nablyudenii planet, t.k. ekliptika po utram raspolozhena pod bol'shim uglom k gorizontu. Posle dnya osennego ravnodenstviya poludennaya vysota Solnca budet umen'shat'sya vplot' do dnya zimnego solncestoyaniya, preodolev chetvert' svoego puti po zodiakal'nym sozvezdiyam i po orbite vokrug Solnca. Iz drugih yavlenii nedeli 23 sentyabrya Luna (F= 0,4-) proidet tochku maksimal'nogo skloneniya k severu ot nebesnogo ekvatora bliz voshodyashego uzla svoei orbity, a dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda R Rysi dostignet maksimuma bleska (7m). 24 sentyabrya Luna (F= 0,2-) proidet cherez zvezdnoe skoplenie Yasli (M44), a dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda R Zaica dostignet maksimuma bleska (6m). 26 sentyabrya Luna (F= 0,09-) proidet severnee Regula. 28 sentyabrya Luna (F= 0,01-) dostignet perigeya svoei orbity na rasstoyanii 357804 km ot centra Zemli (bliz Marsa), a 29 sentyabrya Merkurii proidet v 1,3 gr. severnee Spiki. V etot zhe den' Luna (F= 0,01+) proidet bliz Venery, a dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda RS Gerkulesa dostignet maksimuma bleska (7m).

Solnce. Maksimal'naya vysota dnevnogo svetila nad gorizontom na shirote Moskvy umen'shaetsya do 32 gradusov, a dolgota dnya na toi zhe shirote - do 11 chasov 40 minut. Vidimyi diametr Solnca uvelichivaetsya do 31,93 minut dugi, a dvizhetsya ono po sozvezdiyu Devy. Dannye o Solnce na tekushee vremya.

Luna. Estestvennyi sputnik Zemli vstupaet v fazu novoluniya 28 sentyabrya. Luna v svoem dvizhenii po nebesnoi sfere posetit sozvezdiya Bliznecov, Raka, L'va i Devy, izmenyaya fazu ot 0,4- do 0 i umen'shaya sklonenie, a takzhe vysotu verhnei kul'minacii. Nachalo nedeli nochnoe svetilo provedet v sozvezdii Bliznecov. Zdes' 23 sentyabrya Luna pri faze 0,4- proidet tochku maksimal'nogo skloneniya k severu ot nebesnogo ekvatora, okolo voshodyashego uzla svoei orbity. Prodolzhaya umen'shat' fazu stareyushii serp pereidet v sozvezdie Raka 24 sentyabrya pri faze 0,27-. Zdes' v eto zhe den' lunnyi serp (F= 0,2-) proidet cherez zvezdnoe skoplenie Yasli (M44), ustremivshis' k sozvezdiyu L'va, v kotoroe voidet 25 sentyabrya pri faze 0,15-. 26 sentyabrya tonkii lunnyi serp (F= 0,09-) proidet severnee Regula, a 27 sentyabrya pereidet v sozvezdie Devy pri faze 0,01- (proidya severnee Marsa). V sozvezdii Devy Luna primet fazu novoluniya, nahodyas' bliz perigeya svoei orbity na rasstoyanii 357804 km ot centra Zemli. 29 sentyabrya molodoi mesyac (F= 0,02+) proidet severnee Merkuriya, Spiki i Venery, no eto sblizhenie budet blagopriyatno dlya nablyudenii lish' v yuzhnyh shirotah strany. Fazy Luny na dannoe vremya i na budushee.

Iz planet Solnechnoi sistemy: Merkurii i Venera vidny na fone vechernei zari v yuzhnyh raionah strany. Mars nachinaet utrennyuyu vidimost', a Yupiter i Saturn nablyudayutsya vecherom i noch'yu. Uran i Neptun nahodyatsya na nochnom nebe. Podrobnye efemeridy i karty dvizheniya bol'shih planet dayutsya v pechatnoi versii AK_2019 na http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1364101 . Efemeridy planet na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya takzhe na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/ephemeris.html .

Iz komet hvostataya strannica Africano (C/2018 W2) dvizhetsya po sozvezdiyu Andromedy i Pegasa s bleskom okolo 9m. Karty putei komet i asteroidov na mesyac imeyutsya v KN na sentyabr', a na drugie periody - v Astronomicheskom kalendare na 2019 god. Podrobnye svedeniya o kometah nedeli i mesyaca (s kartami i prognozami bleska) privodyatsya na http://aerith.net/comet/weekly/current.html , a rezul'taty nablyudenii na http://195.209.248.207/ .

Sredi asteroidov naibolee yarkimi na dannoi nedele budut: Evnomiya (8,9m) v sozvezdii Vodoleya i Vesta (7,3m) v sozvezdii Tel'ca.

Iz otnositel'no yarkih (do 9,0m fotograficheskogo bleska) dolgoperiodicheskih peremennyh zvezd (po dannym AAVSO), nablyudaemyh s territorii nashei strany, maksimuma bleska dostignut: R Rysi 7,9m - 23 sentyabrya, S Zmei 8,7m - 23 sentyabrya, R Zaica 6,8m - 24 sentyabrya, S Zhirafa 8,1m - 27 sentyabrya, U Kassiopei 8,4m - 28 sentyabrya, RS Gerkulesa 7,9m - 29 sentyabrya.

Nekotorye blizkie pary svetil: Luna - Yasli (M44), Luna - Regul, Luna - Mars, Luna - Venera, Luna - Merkurii, Merkurii - Venera, Yupiter - Antares, Saturn - omikron Strel'ca, Uran - al'fa Ovna, Neptun - fi Vodoleya, Africano (C/2018 W2) - al'fa Andromedy, P/SOHO (P/2008 Y12) al'fa Vesov.

Obzor tumannyh nebesnyh ob'ektov mesyaca - v zhurnale Nebosvod . Videokalendar' predstoyashih yavlenii http://www.youtube.com/user/AstroSmit i http://www.youtube.com/c/AstroMich .

Nedel'nyi obzor ot zhurnala "Skai end Teleskop", no nuzhno uchityvat', chto kartinki dayutsya dlya 40 severnoi shiroty, a polozhenie Luny i planet na 7 chasov pozdnee otnositel'no moskovskogo vremeni!

Yasnogo neba i uspeshnyh nablyudenii!

Eto interesno! Predydushee polnoe solnechnoe zatmenie imelo mesto: 23 sentyabrya - v 1699 godu, 24 sentyabrya - 0656 godu, 25 sentyabrya - v 1764 godu, 26 sentyabrya - v 1242 godu, 27 sentyabrya - v 1791 godu, 28 sentyabrya - v 1391 godu, 29 sentyabrya - v 1894 godu. Bol'she vsego (za proshedshie dve tysyachi let) polnyh zatmenii v eti dni bylo 25 sentyabrya (6 zatmenii), a men'she vsego 24, 27 i 29 sentyabrya (po 2 zatmeniya). Your Guide to the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

Svedeniya ob astronomicheskih yavleniyah proshlogo i tekushego stoletii mozhno naiti v Astronomicheskom kalendare-spravochnike na Astronet http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1388759 .

Planety

Merkurii. Planeta peremeshaetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu Devy, v konce nedeli sblizhayas' so zvezdoi Spika do gradusa. Merkurii viden na fone vechernei zari v yuzhnyh raionah strany, no pri yasnom gorizonte ego mozhno popytat'sya obnaruzhit' i v srednih shirotah. Elongaciya planety k koncu nedeli uvelichivaetsya do 18 gradusov. Uglovye razmery Merkuriya sostavlyayut okolo 5 sekund dugi pri bleske, kotoryi umen'shaetsya za nedelyu ot -0,4m do -0,2m i faze 0,9 - 0,85. V teleskop viden krohotnyi disk bez detalei. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Merkuriem i Zemlei umen'shaetsya ot 1,34 do 1,29 a.e.. Polozheniya planety vo vremya vseh elongacii 2019 goda imeyutsya v Astronomicheskom kalendare na 2019 god . 11 noyabrya 2019 goda Merkurii proidet po disku Solnca. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Messendzher. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/mercury2019.html

Venera. Planeta dvizhetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu Devy. Venera imeet vechernyuyu vidimost', i vidna v yuzhnyh raionah strany v luchah zahodyashego Solnca. Blagodarya svoei yarkosti planeta mozhet byt' naidena i v srednih shirotah (posle zahoda Solnca) u samogo gorizonta. Elongaciya planety uvelichivaetsya do 12,5 gradusov. Vidimyi diametr Venery sostavlyaet okolo 10 uglovyh sekund, a blesk imeet znachenie okolo -4m pri faze blizkoi k 1,0. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Zemlei i Veneroi umen'shaetsya ot 1,68 do 1,67 a.e.. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Venera-Ekspress. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/venus2019.html

Mars. Zagadochnaya planeta peremeshaetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu L'va. Mars nachinaet utrennyuyu vidimost' i mozhet byt' naiden v luchah voshodyashego Solnca u vostochnogo gorizonta. Blesk planety priderzhivaetsya znacheniya +1,7m, a vidimyi diametr sostavlyaet menee 4 sekund dugi. Eto samyi malen'kii vidimyi diametr iz vseh yarkih planet. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Marsom i Zemlei umen'shaetsya ot 2,65 do 2,64 a.e.. Blizkoe k velikomu protivostoyanie planety nastupit 13 oktyabrya 2020 goda (Astronomicheskii kalendar' na 2020 god). Vidimyi diametr Marsa v period protivostoyaniya budet dostigat' 22,6 uglovyh sekund! Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - MSL Curiosity. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/mars2019.html

Yupiter. Gazovyi gigant dvizhetsya v odnom napravlenii s Solncem po sozvezdiyu Zmeenosca bliz Antaresa. Yupiter nablyudaetsya vecherom i noch'yu. Uglovoi diametr planety umen'shaetsya do 36,0 sekund dugi pri bleske -2,0m i rasstoyanii ot Zemli 5,39 - 5,48 a.e.. V nebol'shoi teleskop mozhno razglyadet' polosy na diske planety (parallel'no ekvatoru) i drugie detali, a takzhe pokrytiya sputnikov planetoi, zatmeniya i prohozhdeniya ih pered planetoi. Konfiguracii sputnikov Yupitera imeyutsya v KN na sentyabr'. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Galileo. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/jupiter2019.html

Saturn. Okol'covannaya planeta imeet pryamoe dvizhenie, peremeshayas' po sozvezdiyu Strel'ca bliz trio zvezd pi, omikron i ksi etogo sozvezdiya. Saturn mozhno nablyudat' na vechernem i nochnom nebe. Vyshe 69 paralleli Saturn ne viden. Blesk planety imeet znachenie +0,4m, a uglovoi diametr sostavlyaet okolo 17 sekund dugi. V teleskop vidno kol'co planety i samyi yarkii sputnik Titan (8m). Drugie otnositel'no yarkie sputniki Saturna mozhno razglyadet' v teleskopy s diametrom ob'ektiva ot 100 mm. Rasstoyanie ot Zemli do Saturna uvelichivaetsya ot 9,75 do 9,85 a.e.. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Kassini. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/saturn2019.html

Uran. Planeta (m= +5,8, d= 3,4 ugl. sek.) dvizhetsya popyatno po sozvezdiyu Ovna (bliz zvezdy omikron Psc (4,2m)). Uran nablyudaetsya pochti vsyu noch'. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Zemlei i Uranom umen'shaetsya za nedelyu ot 19,01 do 18,96 a.e.. V otsutstvii Luny i zasvetki pri prozrachnom nebe planetu mozhno naiti nevooruzhennym glazom. Disk planety razlichim v instrument s uvelicheniem ot 80 krat (pri ideal'nyh usloviyah) i vyshe Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Voyadzher-2. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/uranus2019.html

Neptun. Planeta (m= +7,9, d= 2,3 ugl. sek.) peremeshaetsya popyatno po sozvezdiyu Vodoleya bliz zvezdy fi Aqr (4,2m). Neptun mozhno nablyudat' vsyu noch'. Disk planety razlichim v instrument s uvelicheniem ot 100 krat (pri ideal'nyh usloviyah) i vyshe. Rasstoyanie mezhdu Zemlei i Neptunom uvelichivaetsya 28,95 do 28,98 a.e.. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Voyadzher-2. Efemeridy planety na kazhdyi den' imeyutsya na http://astropixels.com/ephemeris/planets/neptune2019.html

Pluton. Karlikovaya planeta ili plutoid (+14,5m) nahoditsya v sozvezdii Strel'ca (levee trio zvezd pi, omikron i ksi Sgr) na rasstoyanii okolo 34 a.e. ot Zemli. Dlya vizual'nyh nablyudenii Plutona neobhodim teleskop s diametrom ob'ektiva ot 250 mm (v periody nailuchshei vidimosti) i prozrachnoe nebo, a ideal'noe mesto dlya ego nablyudenii - v ekvatorial'noi oblasti Zemli. Kosmicheskie issledovaniya - Novye Gorizonty

Obzornye stat'i o planetah i malyh telah Solnechnoi sistemy - v zhurnale Nebosvod 12 za 2008 god i 1 - 8 za 2009 god.

Dopolnitel'no http://galspace.spb.ru (vse o planetah) i http://astro.websib.ru (raznoobraznaya spravochnaya astroinformaciya)

Efemeridy nekotoryh asteroidov nedeli na 0 chasov vsemirnogo vremeni (dannye GUIDE 8.0)

 
Data          a(2000.0)      d(2000.0)   r      delta   m  elon.   V      PA  son. 
Cerera (1) 
26 Sep 2019  16h41m51.18s  -24 11.716'  2.855   3.040  9.0  69.9  44.45 102.6 Oph 
 1 Oct 2019  16h48m20.19s  -24 30.782'  2.858   3.106  9.1  66.5  46.17 101.7 Oph 
Pallada (2) 
26 Sep 2019  15h07m49.82s  + 9 24.661'  2.937   3.547 10.1  45.8  54.54 110.0 Boo 
 1 Oct 2019  15h14m48.95s  + 8 48.058'  2.947   3.592 10.1  43.5  55.19 109.0 Ser 
Vesta (4) 
26 Sep 2019   3h48m43.16s  +10 44.266'  2.523   1.816  7.3 124.5   5.56 189.1 Tau 
 1 Oct 2019   3h48m13.89s  +10 32.420'  2.526   1.768  7.2 129.4   8.99 225.1 Tau  
Metida (9) 
26 Sep 2019   2h30m27.18s  + 7 35.150'  2.188   1.295  9.4 144.0  15.15 250.9 Cet 
 1 Oct 2019   2h28m08.01s  + 7 24.208'  2.182   1.260  9.2 149.4  21.03 253.5 Cet 
Evnomiya (15) 
26 Sep 2019  20h48m36.46s  - 6 08.307'  2.327   1.556  9.0 129.6   3.20 266.4 Aqr 
 1 Oct 2019  20h48m34.27s  - 6 08.027'  2.319   1.596  9.0 124.8   2.74  79.1 Aqr 
Amfitrita (29) 
26 Sep 2019   1h22m15.88s  +12 08.357'  2.416   1.454  9.1 158.6  29.80 264.1 Psc 
 1 Oct 2019   1h18m00.20s  +12 00.615'  2.413   1.434  9.0 164.4  33.06 261.9 Psc 
Laetitia (39) 
26 Sep 2019  21h18m02.69s  -14 49.963'  2.499   1.688 10.1 135.0  13.07 194.4 Cap 
 1 Oct 2019  21h17m56.06s  -15 13.208'  2.496   1.733 10.2 129.9  10.69 170.8 Cap 
 
a  pryamoe voshozhdenie dlya epohi 2000.0,  d - sklonenie dlya epohi 2000.0,   
r -  rasstoyanie ot Solnca (a.e.),  delta -  rasstoyanie ot Zemli (a.e.),   
m -  zvezdnaya velichina, elon. - elongaciya, V -  uglovaya skorost' (sekund v chas),  
RA -  pozicionnyi ugol napravleniya dvizheniya nebesnogo tela, son. -  sozvezdie   

Izbrannye astronomicheskie yavleniya nedeli

Vremya dlya yavlenii privoditsya vsemirnoe. Na saite Sergeya Gur'yanova mozhno pol'zovat'sya veb-versiei AK na 2019 god s obshim obzorom zvezdnogo neba i yavlenii sentyabrya mesyaca. Svedeniya ot drugih yavleniyah imeyutsya v KN na sentyabr', Astronomicheskom kalendare na 2019 god, Astronomicheskom kalendare - spravochnike i kalendare Salsky .

23 sentyabrya, 07 chasov 50 minut - Osennee ravnodenstvie.

24 sentyabrya, utro - Luna (F= 0,2-) prohodit cherez zvezdnoe skoplenie Yasli (M44).

25 sentyabrya, utro - Dolgoperiodicheskaya peremennaya zvezda R Zaica bliz maksimuma bleska (6m).

26 sentyabrya, utro - Luna (F= 0,09-) prohodit severnee Regula.

27 sentyabrya, utro - Luna (F= 0,01-) bliz Marsa.

28 sentyabrya, 02 chasa 24 minuty - Luna (F= 0,01-) v perigee svoei orbity na rasstoyanii 357804 km ot centra Zemli.

28 sentyabrya, 18 chasov 27 minut - Novolunie.

29 sentyabrya, vecher - Luna (F= 0,01+) bliz Venery.

Dopolnitel'no o yavleniyah i nablyudeniyah - na Astroforume, Starlab, Meteoveb, Bol'shaya Vselennaya i DvaStrel'ca.

Vid zvezdnogo neba v techenie nedeli v srednih shirotah (masshtab vida planet v teleskop soblyuden, sever vverhu):

Vid vostochnoi i yugo-vostochnoi chasti polunochnogo neba 26 sentyabrya v gorodah na shirote Moskvy.

Vid vostochnoi i yugo-vostochnoi chasti neba za chas do voshoda Solnca 26 sentyabrya v gorodah na shirote Moskvy.

Vid yuzhnoi i yugo-zapadnoi chasti neba cherez chas posle zahoda Solnca 26 sentyabrya v gorodah na shirote Moskvy.

 

Istochniki: Kalendar' Nablyudatelya N9 AstroKA; StarryNightBackyard 3.1 (opisatel'naya chast' i vid neba), http://saros70.narod.ru/ (kalendar'), GUIDE 8.0 (polozhenie asteroidov i komet), http://aerith.net/comet/weekly/current.html (operativnye svedeniya o kometah), http://www.imo.net (meteory), AAVSO (peremennye zvezdy), http://www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1388759 (Astronomicheskii kalendar' spravochnik ot 1901 do 2100 goda), http://www.calsky.com/ (on-lain kalendar'), http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/ (katalog asteroidov i komet, a takzhe operativnaya informaciya o novyh nebesnyh telah), http://asteroidoccultation.com/IndexAll.htm (pokrytiya zvezd asteroidami).


Publikacii s klyuchevymi slovami: astronomicheskaya nedelya - lyubitel'skaya astronomiya - nebo - nevooruzhennym glazom
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