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Massa i energiya svyazi yadra
11.03.2002 13:21 |

Massa yadra izmeryaetsya v atomnyh edinicah massy (a.e.m). Za odnu atomnuyu edinicu massy prinimaetsya 1/12 chast' massy neitral'nogo atoma ugleroda 12 S:

1 a.e.m = 1.6606.10-27 kg.

A.e.m. vyrazhaetsya cherez energeticheskie edinicy:

1a.e.m = 1.5.10-3 erg = 1.510-10Dzh = 931.49 MeV

Massa yadra vsegda men'she massy sostavlyayushih ego nuklonov.

Energiya svyazi yadra Esv(A,Z) - eto minimal'naya energiya, neobhodimaya, chtoby razvalit' yadro na otdel'nye, sostavlyayushie ego nuklony.

Esv(A, Z) = [Z mp + (A - Z)mn - M(A, Z)]c2,

gde Z - chislo protonov, (A - Z) - chislo neitronov, mp- massa protona, mn - massa neitrona, M(A,Z) - massa yadra s massovym chislom A i zaryadom Z.
Polnaya energiya svyazi yadra, vyrazhennaya cherez massu atoma Mat, imeet vid:

Esv(A, Z) = [ZmH + (A - Z)mn - Mat(A, Z) - Zme)]c2 ,

gde mH - massa atoma vodoroda,  me - massa elektrona

Udel'naya energiya svyazi yadra (A, Z) eto energiya svyazi, prihodyashayasya na odin nuklon

(A, Z) = Esv(A,Z) / A.

Izbytok mass (defekt mass) svyazan s massoi atoma Mat(A,Z) i massovym chislom A sootnosheniem:

= Mat(A,Z) - A.

Naibolee ustoichivy yadra, u kotoryh magicheskoe chislo protonov i/ili neitronov.

Magicheskie chisla
n 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, 184
p 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 114

Glossarii Astronet.ru


Publikacii s klyuchevymi slovami: atomnoe yadro - atomnaya edinica massy - energiya svyazi yadra - izbytok mass - defekt massy - magicheskie chisla
Publikacii so slovami: atomnoe yadro - atomnaya edinica massy - energiya svyazi yadra - izbytok mass - defekt massy - magicheskie chisla
Karta smyslovyh svyazei dlya termina MASSA I ENERGIYa SVYaZI YaDRA
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